How to Protect Your PostgreSQL Databases from Cyberattacks with SQL Firewall?

SQL Firewall is a security solution that provides protection against SQL injection attacks by filtering and blocking potentially harmful SQL statements. In PostgreSQL, the pgBouncer connection pooler can be used as an SQL Firewall.
To protect your PostgreSQL databases from cyberattacks with SQL Firewall, you can follow these steps:
  1. Install and configure pgBouncer as an SQL Firewall:
    • Install pgBouncer on a separate server from the PostgreSQL database server.Configure pgBouncer to act as a connection pooler for your PostgreSQL database.Enable query logging in pgBouncer to monitor and analyze SQL statements.
  2. Create SQL Firewall rules to block potentially harmful SQL statements:
    • Define rules that specify which SQL statements are allowed and which ones are blocked.Use regular expressions to define patterns of SQL statements that are blocked.Configure pgBouncer to apply the SQL Firewall rules to incoming SQL statements.
  3. Monitor and analyze SQL traffic to detect and prevent cyberattacks:
    • Use pgBouncer’s query logging to monitor and analyze SQL traffic.Set up alerts to notify you of suspicious SQL traffic, such as repeated failed login attempts.Use statistical analysis and machine learning to detect anomalies and identify potential attacks.
Here is a summary of the pg_stat_activity view in PostgreSQL, which can be used to monitor database activity and troubleshoot performance issues:

Column nameDescription
datidOID of the database being accessed
datnameName of the database being accessed
pidProcess ID of the backend process handling the connection
usesysidOID of the user logged into the database
usenameName of the user logged into the database
application_nameName of the application connected to the database
client_addrIP address of the client connected to the database
client_hostnameHostname of the client connected to the database
client_portPort number of the client connected to the database
backend_startTimestamp of when the backend process handling the connection was started
xact_startTimestamp of when the current transaction started
query_startTimestamp of when the current query started
state_changeTimestamp of when the current state of the query was last changed
waitingFlag indicating whether the process is waiting for a lock or other resource
stateCurrent state of the query or transaction
queryText of the currently executing command, if any
backend_typeType of backend process handling the connection
query_durationDuration of the current query or transaction, if available
lock_typeType of lock held by the process, if any
relationOID of the relation being accessed, if any
grantorOID of the user granting a lock or privilege, if any
granteeOID of the user granted a lock or privilege, if any
About Shiv Iyer 455 Articles
Open Source Database Systems Engineer with a deep understanding of Optimizer Internals, Performance Engineering, Scalability and Data SRE. Shiv currently is the Founder, Investor, Board Member and CEO of multiple Database Systems Infrastructure Operations companies in the Transaction Processing Computing and ColumnStores ecosystem. He is also a frequent speaker in open source software conferences globally.