Comprehensive Guide to Troubleshooting Binary Log File Inconsistencies in MySQL Replication

Troubleshooting binary log file inconsistencies in MySQL replication is a critical task, as these inconsistencies can cause replication errors, data drift, and potential loss of data integrity. The binary log (binlog) files in a MySQL setup are essential for replication, as they record changes made to the database that are then replicated to the slave servers. Here's a structured approach to troubleshoot binary log file inconsistencies:

1. Identifying the Issue

  • Error Logs: Check the MySQL error logs on both the master and the slave servers. Look for errors related to replication, such as Error reading packet from server, Slave: Error 'Duplicate entry', etc.
  • Replication Status: Execute SHOW SLAVE STATUS\\\\G on the slave to check for any replication errors and the status of the replication threads.

2. Verifying Binary Logs and Positions

  • Master Binary Logs: On the master, use SHOW MASTER STATUS; to see the current binary log file and position.
  • Slave Relay Logs: On the slave, SHOW SLAVE STATUS\\\\G provides the Relay_Master_Log_File and Exec_Master_Log_Pos. Compare these with the master’s log file and position to ensure they are in sync.

3. Checking for Data Inconsistency

  • Data Verification: Use tools like pt-table-checksum from Percona Toolkit to verify data consistency between the master and the slave.
  • Row-based vs. Statement-based Replication: Issues may arise depending on the replication format. Row-based replication is less prone to inconsistencies but can generate larger binlogs.

4. Corrupted Binlog Files

  • Corruption Signs: Look for signs of corrupted binlogs, such as I/O errors in logs.
  • Recreating Binlogs: If a binlog file is corrupted, you may need to recreate it. This involves taking a new backup of the master and setting up replication afresh.

5. Network Issues

  • Network Stability: Ensure a stable and reliable network connection between the master and slave. Network glitches can cause issues in binlog transmission.

6. Binary Log Configuration

  • Sync Settings: On the master, ensure that sync_binlog is set appropriately (1 for syncing the binlog to disk after every commit).
  • Log Expiration: Ensure that binlog expiration (expire_logs_days) on the master is not causing premature deletion of logs needed by the slave.

7. Handling Duplicate Errors

  • Skip Errors: For specific duplicate key errors, you can use SET GLOBAL sql_slave_skip_counter = 1; START SLAVE; on the slave. Be cautious, as this might lead to data inconsistency.

8. Resetting Replication

  • If inconsistencies persist:
    • Take a fresh backup of the master.
    • Reset the slave (RESET SLAVE;).
    • Restore the backup on the slave.
    • Configure replication again using the correct master log file and position.

9. Monitoring and Preventive Measures

  • Regular Monitoring: Implement monitoring for replication lag and errors.
  • Read-only Slave: Ensure the slave is read-only (read_only option) to prevent accidental writes that can cause drift.

10. Consult Error-Specific Documentation

  • Each error code or message can have specific causes and solutions. Refer to the MySQL documentation for detailed guidance on each.

Conclusion

Troubleshooting binary log inconsistencies requires a careful and methodical approach. Ensure that you have a good understanding of the replication architecture and always keep backups to prevent data loss during the troubleshooting process. Regular monitoring and preventive maintenance can help mitigate these issues from arising in the first place.
About Shiv Iyer 422 Articles
Open Source Database Systems Engineer with a deep understanding of Optimizer Internals, Performance Engineering, Scalability and Data SRE. Shiv currently is the Founder, Investor, Board Member and CEO of multiple Database Systems Infrastructure Operations companies in the Transaction Processing Computing and ColumnStores ecosystem. He is also a frequent speaker in open source software conferences globally.